Yeast Infection: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

What Causes Yeast Infections? | Symptoms of Yeast Infections  | Diagnosis and Treatment

Yeast infection also known as candidiasis is a common fungal infection that affects many individuals, particularly women. It is caused by an overgrowth of the Candida fungus, specifically Candida albicans which naturally exists in small amounts in the human body. However, certain factors can disrupt the balance of microorganisms leading to an overgrowth of yeast and subsequent infection. In this article, we will talk about the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for these infections.

What Causes Yeast Infections?

Vaginal yeast infectionThese infections can be triggered by several factors that disturb the delicate balance of microorganisms in the body. These include:


The use of antibiotics can disrupt the normal bacterial flora in the body, creating an environment conducive to yeast overgrowth. Antibiotics eliminate not only harmful bacteria but also the beneficial ones that help control yeast populations.

Weakened Immune System:

Individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, diabetes, or undergoing cancer treatment are more susceptible to yeast infections due to their compromised ability to fight off infections.

Hormonal Changes:

Hormonal fluctuations during pregnancy, menstrual cycles, or menopause can alter the vaginal environment, making it more favorable for yeast overgrowth.

Uncontrolled Diabetes:

High blood sugar levels in uncontrolled diabetes can promote yeast growth, as yeast thrives on glucose.

Poor Hygiene:

Inadequate hygiene practices, such as wearing damp or tight fitting clothing, not changing out of wet swimsuits on time, or using harsh soaps or feminine hygiene products, can create an environment that encourages yeast overgrowth.

Weakened or Damaged Immune Barrier:

Any condition or medical intervention that compromises the body’s immune barrier, such as chemotherapy or immunosuppressive medications, can increase the risk of the infection.

Symptoms of Yeast Infections

The symptoms of the infection can vary depending on the affected area of the body. The most common type of yeast infection is vaginal yeast infection, which presents the following symptoms:

Vaginal Yeast Infection:Vaginal yeast infection

  • Itching and irritation in the vaginal area
  • Burning sensation during urination or intercourse
  • Redness and swelling of the vulva
  • Thick, white, and odorless vaginal discharge resembling cottage cheese

Other types of the infections may manifest in different ways:

Oral Thrush:Vaginal yeast infection

  • White patches on the tongue, inner cheeks, or roof of the mouth
  • Soreness or discomfort while eating or drinking
  • Loss of taste

Skin Yeast Infection:

  • Red, itchy rash with well defined edges
  • Small, raised bumps or pustules
  • Cracking or flaking of the skin

Diagnosis and Treatment

If you suspect a yeast infection, it is important for you to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis. The healthcare provider will review your medical history, assess your symptoms, and may perform a physical examination. In some cases, a sample of the discharge or affected skin may be taken for laboratory testing to confirm the presence of Candida.

Treatment Options:

The treatment of the infections typically involves antifungal medications. These can be administered in various forms, including:

  • Over the counter (OTC) antifungal creams, ointments, or suppositories
  • Prescription strength antifungal medications in the form of creams, ointments, tablets, or oral capsules

Additionally, your healthcare provider may recommend:

  • Lifestyle changes, such as practicing good hygiene, wearing breathable clothing, and avoiding irritants
  • Probiotic supplements to restore the balance of microorganisms
  • Managing underlying conditions, such as diabetes or HIV, to prevent recurrent infections

Prevention of Yeast Infections

Taking preventive measures can significantly reduce the risk of developing yeast infections. Here are some practical tips to consider:

Maintain Good Hygiene:

  • Keep the genital area clean and dry.
  • Avoid using irritating soaps, perfumes, or douches in the vaginal area.
  • Wipe from front to back after using the toilet to prevent the spread of bacteria from the anus to the vagina.

Wear Comfortable Clothing:

  • Choose underwear made of breathable materials, such as cotton.
  • Avoid tight fitting pants or pantyhose that trap moisture.

Manage Blood Sugar Levels:

  • If you have diabetes, keep your blood sugar levels under control to minimize yeast overgrowth.

Limit Antibiotic Use:

  • Use antibiotics only as prescribed by your healthcare provider and complete the full course of treatment.

Key Takeaway

Yeast infections are common fungal infections caused by an overgrowth of Candida fungus. They can affect various parts of the body, with vaginal yeast infections being the most prevalent. Understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatment options is important for timely diagnosis and effective management of yeast infections. By adopting preventive measures and seeking appropriate treatment, individuals can minimize the occurrence and recurrence of these uncomfortable infections. If you suspect a yeast infection, consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and guidance.